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Home > Catalogue > Gates and Rowan's Nonepileptic Seizures with DVD-ROM
Gates and Rowan's Nonepileptic Seizures with DVD-ROM

Details

  • 3 b/w illus. 47 tables
  • Page extent: 372 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.98 kg

1 DVD-ROM, 1 Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521517638)

  • Published December 2009

Replaced by 9781107110724

US $198.00
Singapore price US $211.86 (inclusive of GST)
Gates and Rowan’s Nonepileptic Seizures
Cambridge University Press
9780521517638 - Gates and Rowan’s Nonepileptic Seizures - Edited by Steven C. Schachter and W. Curt LaFrance, Jr.
Index

Index

abridged somatization disorder 27

abuse/trauma

association with PNES 213–15

activation procedures

See diagnosis of PNES

acute life-threatening event (ALTE)

neonates and infants 94–7

adolescents with PNES 104

perceptions about PNES 187–9

perceptions of family members 187–9

See also diagnostic approach for children, paroxysmal events in children

advanced practice psychiatric nurse

role in care of patients with PNES 255–6

afebrile infantile convulsions 69

affective disorders

comorbidity with PNES 11

affective functioning in PNES patients

objective neuropsychological findings 144–5

subjective appraisal 144–5

age-related macular degeneration 71

aggressive outbursts 71

alternating hemiplegia of childhood 101

Alzheimer's disease 116

amobarbital

use in PNES diagnosis 42

antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)

resistance in PNES 38

See also pharmacological treatments for PNES

antihistamines 65

anxiety disorders

comorbidity with PNES 11, 226–7

anxiety in PNES patients 145–6

aortic stenosis 64, 65

apnea (neonatal and infantile) 94–7

Arnold-Chiari malformation 67

ataque de nervios (attack of nerves)

See Puerto Rican culture and PNES

athetosis 102, 115

atrial myxoma 65

atrioventricular block 64

attention deficit disorder 101, 102

autistic spectrum disorder 100

autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) 69

ballism 102, 115

benign myoclonus of infancy 99–100

benign neonatal sleep myoclonus 97

benign nonepileptic infantile spasms 99–100

benign paroxysmal positional vertigo 68, 70

benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy 99

benign paroxysmal vertigo 98

BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) 144

body rocking in children 100

borderline personality disorder 142, 228–31

Boston Naming Test 144

bradyarrhythmias 65

brain injury

and PNES 43

breath-holding spells in children 46, 98

Breuer, Joseph 22, 82

Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised 143

Briquet, Pierre 19–20

Briquet's hysteria 19–20, 24

bromides

early use in PNES treatment 238, 310

Brugada syndrome 64, 65, 67

bruxism (sleep-related) 79

burden of PNES

See costs of PNES

California Verbal Learning Test 137

carcinoid syndrome 72

cardiac events 3

cardiogenic syncope 64, 65–6

cardiomyopathy 65

cardiomyopathy, inherited 65

care of patients with PNES

benefits of psychological support and education 253–4

comprehensive care 253–4

diagnostic disclosure protocol 256

multidisciplinary approach 253–4

multidisciplinary model of care 254–8

presenting the diagnosis to the patient 254–5

psychological support 254–5

role of the advanced practice psychiatric nurse 255–6

role of the nurse 255–6

role of the social worker 256–7

carotid sinus hypersensitivity 65

Carter, Robert Brudenell 19

cataplexy 67–8

in children and adolescents 105

catatonia 203

causation of PNES

legal implications 159–60

cerebrogenic cardiac dysfunction 66

Charcot, Jean-Martin 20–1, 82, 83, 132, 297

Charles Bonnet syndrome 71

childhood neglect

association with PNES 214


children with PNES

adolescents’ perceptions about PNES 187–9

approaches to diagnosis and treatment 183–5

clinical vignettes 171–4

cognitive evaluation 179

comorbid psychiatric diagnoses 165–6

diagnostic challenges 166–7

diagnostic feedback to parents and child 169–71

diagnostic process 167–9

etiological theories 187

familiy conflict and psychopathology 179–80

history of multiple stressors 179–80

history of sexual abuse 179

individual child's experience of stress 185

learning difficulties 179–80

models of pediatric PNES 163–5

parents’ perceptions about PNES 187–9

peer relationship problems 180

perceptions of PNES in India 189

prevalence related to age 187

primary diagnosis 165

psychological assessment 179

risk factors for pediatric PPNES 163

study of stressor types and responses 180–3

timing of diagnosis 167

treatment goals 174–6

See also diagnostic approach for children, paroxysmal events in children

chorea 69, 101, 115

chronic fatigue syndrome 27–8, 39

chronic pain 39

chronic pelvic pain 216

Chvostek's sign 101

circadian rhythm sleep disorders 77

Clarke, Pierce 22

classical conditioning model for treatment 269–70

classification of nonepileptic seizures

catatonia 203

conversion disorders 203

dissociative states 202–3

DSM 199, 202

episodic dyscontrol 204

etiologic approach 201–2

issues concerning consciousness 204–5

malingering 203–4

nosological approach 202–4

panic attacks 203

PNES 204

purpose 201

semiological approach 202

semi-structured clinical interview for diagnosis (SCID) 209

tool to classify PNES 209

classifications of PNES

as symptom or disease 12

based on etiology 8, 11

based on personality testing 7

based on semiology 5–7

based on semiology and personality testing 8

based on suspected psychological mechanism 8

clinical relevance of subtypes of PNES 5

comorbidities of PNES 11–12

descriptive vs. etiological approach 11

differential diagnosis 8–9

DSM 11, 12–13

ICD 11

proposed dissociative subtype 12

somatoform vs. dissociative nature 10–11

sources of confusion 10–13

suggested changes to DSM 12–13

within existing psychiatric taxonomies 9–13

clinical features of PNES

See diagnosis of PNES

clinical psychologist

role in treatment of PNES 263–4

clinical types of PNES 79

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PNES 281–2

Brown Medical School, Rhode Island Hospital 282–3

Maudsley Hospital, London 283–5

questions not yet answered by research 285

therapeutic challenges posed by this patient group 285–6

cognitive complaints of PNES patients 144

and level of self-perceived anxiety 145–6

implications for clinical practice and research 146–7

memory dysfunction 145–6

cognitive functioning in PNES patients

objective neuropsychological findings 144–5

subjective appraisal 144–5

colloid cysts 67

comorbid ES and PNES 5, 43

and developmental delay 58

case examples 51–2

characteristics of NES versus ES 55–6

definition of ES 51

definition of PNES 51

delay in diagnosis 52–3

diagnosis 53–4

EEG 57

epilepsy surgery and PNES 58

healthcare costs 53

historical reports 51

ictal semiology 55

incidence and prevalence 52–3

indications for suspicion 51

medical treatment 53

negative VEEG using scalp recordings 56

neuropsychological evaluations 56–7

prolactin measurement 58

pseudostatus and status epilepticus 56

quality of life (QOL) effects 53

risk factors 53–4

social impacts 53

temporal relationship of seizures 54–5

VEEG 57–8

See also epilepsy with PNES

comorbidities with PNES 11–12

anxiety disorders 226–7

associations with trauma 215–17

mood disorders 226–7

personality disorders 227–31

complaisant overadjustment 122

confidentiality

legal implications of PNES 158–9

confusional arousals 45, 72, 78

confusional states (prolonged) 72–3

congenital heart disease 64

Conversation Analysis 85–6

conversion 22

symptoms in PNES patients 29

conversion disorder 203

DSM criteria 11

in children and adolescents 105

in patients with PNES 27


convulsionnaires 17

convulsive movement episodes 68–70

costs of PNES

antiepileptic drug use 31

changes in employment status 32

comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions 31–2

comparison with intractable epilepsy 29–30

comparison with well-defined disorders 28–9

estimating costs 29–32

extent of MUS in neurology practice 28–9

financial assistance 32

pre-diagnosis costs 30

prognosis 32

tertiary care 30–1

cough syncope 65

creatine kinase

postictal testing 44

culture and PNES

culturally embodied metaphors 121

development of culturally appropriate treatments 128

India 126–8

Puerto Rico 124–6

socio-cultural factors in psychopathology 121–2

theoretical background 121–2

Turkey 122–4

culture-specific startle syndromes 70

DAPP-BQ (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) 7

daydreaming in children 101

decision tree to diagnose seizure-like events 205–9

dementia 111, 115, 116

denial in PNES patients

brain structures involved 145–6

depression

in the elderly 111

DES (Dissociative Experiences Scale) 11

descriptive approach to classification of PNES 11

developmental delay

and comorbid ES and PNES 58

diabetes

in the elderly 115

diagnosis of comorbid ES and PNES 53–4

diagnosis of PNES 3–4

abnormal movements in the ICU 46

ambulatory EEG 39

analysis of ictal semiology 40–2

circumstances in which attacks occur 38

coexisting epilepsy 43

coexisting neurological disease 43

differential diagnosis 8–9, 45–6

differentiation from epilepsy 8–9, 83–4

differentiation from parasomnias 45–6

differentiation from paroxysmal movement disorders 46

differentiation from syncope 45

difficult and special issues 43

difficulties in accepting the diagnosis 261–2

errors in EEG interpretation 43

ES and PNES 77

events which occur during sleep 77

examination 39

frequency of events 38

home video recordings 39

in the elderly 43

induction of seizures 42

lack of ictal EEG changes 43–4

late-onset PNES 43

limitations of VEEG monitoring 43–4

linguistic analysis 85–8

misdiagnosis as epilepsy 38

multiple seizure types 43

neuropsychological evaluation 45

nocturnal seizures 79–80

physiological nonepileptic events 45–6

PNES after epilepsy surgery 43

postictal laboratory tests 44–5

presenting the diagnosis to the patient 254–6

previous abnormal EEG 43

provocative techniques 42

psychological profiling 45

resistance to AEDs 38

role of VEEG 8–9, 38

routine EEG 39

short-term outpatient VEEG with activation 42

sources of confusion 10–13

specific triggers 38

suspicion by patient history 38–9

transient loss of awareness 62–3

use of hypnosis 83–4

use of hypnosis to induce PNES 83–4

VEEG monitoring 39–42, 43–4

diagnosis of seizure-like events

decision tree 205–9

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

See DSM

diagnostic approach for children

clinical clues from the history 91–2

clinical event description 91

confirmatory tests for nonepileptic events 92–3

differential diagnosis

See paroxysmal events in children

ES differential diagnosis 92

nonepileptic differential diagnosis 92

particular challenges in children 105

patient history 91–2

risk factors from the history 91–2

routine EEG 92

simultaneous VEEG and polysomnography 92–3

diagnostic disclosure protocol

patients with PNES 256

diagnostic issues in the elderly

See elderly people

Digit Memory Test 137

digoxin 65

disability

legal implications of PNES 159

discrimination against patients with PNES 159

dissociation

and trauma 82–3

dissociation in PNES 10–11

proposed dissociative subtype 12

dissociative disorder

comorbidity with PNES 11

dissociative identity disorder (DID) 83

dissociative states 202–3

driving

legal implications of PNES 157–8

drop attacks 67–8

DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)

approach to psychiatric classification 11

classification of nonepileptic seizures 199, 202

classification of PNES 11

personality disorder classifications 7

suggested changes to PNES classification 12–13

dysautonomia 9

dyskinesias

in children 101–2

dystonia 69, 102, 115

echolalia 70

echopraxia 70

elderly people

age-related diagnostic issues 111

diabetes 115

diagnostic issues 110

diagnostic steps and problems 111–12

diagnostic VEEG monitoring 110, 112, 116

encephalopathy 111, 115–16

epidemiology of NES 110–11

hyperkinetic symptoms 115

hypoglycemia 115

ischemic events 114

late-onset PNES 43

movement disorders 115

NES treatment and outcome 116

physiological NES 114

PNES treatment and outcome 116

psychogenic NES (PNES) 114

REM sleep behavior disorder 115

routine EEG monitoring 111–12

sleep disorders 115

syncope 114

TIAs (transient ischemic attacks) 114

electroencephalogram (EEG)

markers for the hypnotic state 83

emotional abuse

association with PNES 213–14

emotional adjustment evaluation and PNES 138–40

encephalopathy

in the elderly 111, 115–16

epidemiology of NES in the elderly 110–11

epidemiology of PNES 3–5

diagnosis of PNES 3–4

ES comorbidity 5

incidence 4

prevalence 4–5

epilepsy

association with hysteria 22–3

association with sleep 71–2

historical association with hysteria 19

misdiagnosis of PNES 38

PNES after epilepsy surgery 43

epilepsy diagnosis

analysis of ictal semiology 40–2

differentiation from migraine 70

ES and PNES 77

nocturnal seizures 79–80

rates of misdiagnosis 62

transient loss of awareness 62–3

use of hypnosis 83–4

See also diagnosis of PNES

epilepsy surgery and PNES 58

epilepsy with PNES 43

diagnosis of epilepsy 248–9

diagnosis of PNES 248

incidence 247

management challenges 247

management of epilepsy 250–1

management of PNES 249–50

managing the diagnostic process 248

overall management strategy for PNES 247–8

patient characteristics 248

Quarriers inpatient assessment process 251

therapeutic value of AED reduction 250

See also comorbid ES and PNES

epileptic myoclonus 68

epileptic personality concept 23

epileptic seizures (ES)

comorbidity with PNES 5

differentiation from PNES 3, 8–9

episodic ataxia

in children 102

episodic ataxia (EA1 and EA2) 69

episodic dyscontrol 204

in children 102

episodic dyscontrol syndrome 71

episodic phenomena in sleep 71–2

essential tremor 98

etiological classification of nonepileptic seizures 201–2

etiological approach to classification of PNES 8, 11, 266–74

etiological models for treatment

classical conditioning model 269–70

family systems model 269

individualized treatment plans 277

learning theory models 269–70

operant conditioning model 270

“organic” psychosyndrome model 273–4

psychodynamic approach 266–9

psychosomatic/psychophysiological models 273

stress model 270–3

subgroups in PNES 275–6

towards a unified model for PNES 274–5

etiology of PNES

attachment trauma theories 218

complexity and variability 219

dissociation theories 217–18

dissociation vs. somatization 10–11

family dysfunction theories 218

historical theories 213

information from comorbidities 12

PNES as brain trauma 219

PNES as panic attacks 218–19

PTSD theories 218

somatization vs. dissociation 10–11

theories linking trauma or PTSD 217–19

use in classification schemes 8

excessive fragmentary hypnic myoclonus 77, 79

faciomandibular myoclonus 79

factitious disorder 28

See also Munchausen syndrome

familial dilated cardiomyopathy 65

Family Assessment Device (FAD) 318

family conflict and psychopathology

children with PNES 179–80

family dysfunction

association with PNES 214–15

family members

perceptions about children with PNES 187–9

family system dysfunction in PNES 317

family systems model of treatment 269

family therapy

assessment instruments 318–19

case study (McMaster Assessment) 320–6

McMaster Model of Family Functioning (MMFF) 317–18

principles and focus 317

Problem Centered Systems Therapy of the Family (PCSTF) 319–20

role of family dysfunction in PNES 317

fibromyalgia 27–8, 39, 217

“forced obedience” response 70

frequency of PNES 82

Freud, Sigmund 21–3, 82, 85, 131, 132, 297

fugue states (prolonged) 72–3

functional somatic syndromes 27–8

furor uterinus 18

generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures (GEFS+) 69

geste antagoniste 69, 102

glaucoma 71

globus hystericus 17

grand chorea epidemics 17

group psychotherapy

history of development 289

theoretical orientations 289

group therapy for PNES

active relaxation/behavioral activation teaching 294

adjunctive treatment 294–5

as adjunctive treatment 292

awareness of secondary gain 294

cognitive restructuring techniques 294

contribution to threshold dose of care 292

cost-effectiveness 292

exposure techniques 294

format at Stanford University outpatients Behavior Medicine Clinic 293–5

intake interview 293–4

interpersonal skills training 293–4

motivational techniques 294

potential benefits for patients 289

psycho-educational presentation 294

radical acceptance of symptoms 294

rationale 291–3

relapse prevention training 294

ripple effect within the group 292

social support 292–3

studies 289–91

treatment of comorbid conditions 292

unique change-inducing factors 293

Gulf War syndrome 27

hallucinations 9, 71, 77, 105

in children 104

haloperidol 312

head banging 46, 71, 100

head injury

and PNES 43

headrolling in children 100

Health Related Quality of Life 139

concept 149

limitations of measures for PNES patients 154–5

measures 149–50

PNES 150–1

PNES compared with anxiety and depression 153

PNES compared with ES 151

self-report questionnaires 149–50

hereditary hyperekplexia 97

historical approaches to PNES treatment 237–43

history of hysteria

ancient Egyptians 17

ancient Greeks 17

association with epilepsy 18–19, 22–3

association with trauma 22

association with witchcraft 17

beginnings of neurology 18

Briquet's hysteria 19–20, 24

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 18–19

epileptic personality concept 23

implication of sexual causes 18, 19

link between body and mind 18–19

link with emotions 18

Middle Ages 17

new hysteria studies 24

outbreaks of mass hysteria 17

posttraumatic hysteria 19

role of subconscious ideas 21

role of unconscious conflicts 22

socio-historical studies 24

stress as trigger for seizures 23–4

supernatural explanations 17

the French school 19–21

twentieth century 23–4

wandering womb concept 17

war-related neuroses 23–4

work of Briquet 19–20, 238

work of Charcot 20–1, 238–9

work of Freud 21–3

work of Janet 21, 239

work of Laycock 18–19

work of Sydenham 18

work of Whytt 18

work of Willis 18

hyperekplexia 69–70

in neonates and infants 97

hyperkalemic periodic paralyses 68

hyperkinetic movement disorders

in children 101–2

hyperkinetic symptoms

elderly people 115

hypersomnias of central origin 77

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 64, 65

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy 65

hyperventilation in children 101

hypnic jerks (sleep starts) 71, 77

hypnosis

and hysteria 22

clinical applications 298–304

comparison with other induction procedures 84–5

differentiation between ES and PNES 83–4

exploratory and expressive approaches 302–4

history of uses 82–3

induction procedure in PNES diagnosis 83–4

parallels with PNES phenomena 297–8

pathophysiology of the hypnotic state 83

physiological basis 83

preparing the patient 298–300

susceptibility for hypnosis 297

therapeutic aspects in PNES 85

use in PNES diagnosis 42

use in posttraumatic hysteria 20

use of self-control procedures 300–2

Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) 83

hypnotizability

and psychopathology 83

trait hypothesis 83

hypocalcemia 72

hypochondriasis 27

hypoglycemia 72

in elderly people 115

hypokalemic periodic paralyses 68


hysteria

See history of hysteria

hysteria libidinosa 18

hysteria major 20

hysterical neurosis 11

hysterical pseudoseizures 3

hystero-epilepsy 3, 19

ICD (International Classification of Diseases)

classification of PNES 11

illusions or hallucinations 71

incidence of PNES 4

India

perceptions about PNES in children 189

Indian culture and PNES 126–8

clinical phenomenology 126

comorbidity 127–8

epidemiology 126

precipitating factors 127

psychopathogenesis 126–7

variability of clinical course 127–8

induction of PNES

comparison of techniques 84–5

use of hypnosis 83–4

induction of seizures

diagnosis of PNES 42

infantile masturbation 100

inpatient treatment for PNES 309–10

insomnias 77

intermittent explosive disorder 71, 204

in children 102

intracranial monitoring 44

ion channel disorders 69

irritable bowel syndrome 27, 28, 217

ischemic cardiomyopathy 64

ischemic events

in elderly people 114

ischemic heart disease 65

Jackson, Hughlings 18, 19

jactatio capitis 46

jactatio capitis nocturna 71, 100

Janet, Pierre 21, 82, 83, 297

Jorden, Edward 17

Jumping Frenchmen of Maine 70

juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 102

Lange-Neilson syndrome 65

Latah from Indonesia 70

Laycock, Thomas 18–19

learning difficulties

children with PNES 179–80

learning theory models for PNES treatment 269–70

left atrial myxoma 64

legal implications of PNES

causation of PNES 159–60

comparison with epilepsy 157, 160

confidentiality 158–9

disability 159

discrimination 159

driving 157–8

privacy 158–9

Letter Memory Test 137

linguistic analysis

Conversation Analysis 85–6

metaphoric conceptualizations of seizures 87

seizure labels 87–8

therapeutic potential 88

use in diagnosis of PNES 85–8

long QT syndromes 64, 65

Lyme disease 39

malingering 28, 203–4

definition 190

mass hysteria outbreaks 17

McMaster Clinical Rating Scale (MCRS) 318

McMaster Model of Family Functioning (MMFF) 317–18

McMaster Structured Interview of Family Functioning (McSiff) 318–19

medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)

burden of healthcare costs 28

connection with PNES 27–8

conversion symptoms in PNES patients 29

costs associated with 28

in patients with PNES 29

level of occurrence in neurology practice 28–9

pain disorders in PNES patients 29

prevalence 27–8

research implications for PNES 32–4

memory dysfunction in PNES patients

brain structures involved 145–6

Ménière's disease 70

Mesmer, Franz Anton 82

metaphoric conceptualizations of seizures 87

migraine 3, 46

differentiation from epilepsy 70

in children and adolescents 103–4

in the elderly 111

migrainous phenomena

differentiation from PNES 9

mitral stenosis 65

MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 7, 57

MMPI/MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) 138–9

models for treatment

See etiological models for treatment

mood disorders

comorbidity in PNES 226–7

motor neuron disorders 69

movement disorders

in elderly people 115

multidisciplinary approach to PNES patient care 253–4

multidisciplinary approach to treatment of PNES 264

multidisciplinary model of PNS care 254–8

multiple chemical sensitivities 27

multiple sclerosis 43, 69

multisomatoform disorder 27

Munchausen by proxy syndrome 102–3

Munchausen syndrome

consequences and costs 191

definition of factitious disorder 28, 190

impacts on the patient–doctor relationship 190–1

issues of special concern 192–3

literature review 191

neurological history and examination 191–2

origin of the term 190

professional vignette 193–4

prognosis 190–1

psychiatric consultation 192

psychiatric treatment 193

suicide risk 192

suspicion of deceit 191–2

variant of factitious disorder 190

myalgic encephalomyelitis 27

Myers, Frederick 82

myoclonic jerks

during a syncopal episode 66

myoclonus 68

Myriachit from Siberia 70

narcolepsy 46, 67–8, 77

in children and adolescents 105

NEO-PI-R personality measure 7

neurally mediated hypotension 64

neurocardiogenic syncope 64

neurological disease

comorbidity with PNES 43

neurologist

role in treatment of PNES 260, 261–3

neuropsychological testing 136

cognitive and affective aspects in PNES 144–5

effort testing 137–8

inability to differentiate ES and PNES 138

similarity of results in ES and PNES patients 136–8

test-taking motivation in PNES 137–8

neurosis

early use of the term 20

night terrors 45, 72, 103

nightmares 72

in children 103

nocturnal epileptic seizures

differential diagnosis 79–80

nocturnal hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesia 69

nocturnal panic attacks 78

nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia 46

nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder 78

nonepileptic attack disorder 3

nonepileptic myoclonus 9, 46

nonepileptic nonpsychogenic episodes

See physiological nonepileptic events

nonepileptic physiologic events 45–6

non-REM parasomnias 72, 77–8

nonstate dependent parasomnias 78

nurse

role in care of patients with PNES 255–6

obsessive compulsive disorder 102

obstructive sleep apnea 72

in the elderly 111

Oedipus complex 22, 23

operant conditioning model for treatment 270

opsoclonus in children 100

“organic” psychosyndrome model 273–4

orthostatic syncope 64–5

pain disorders 27

in PNES patients 29

panic attacks 46, 71, 203

in children 104

nocturnal 78

parasomnias 9, 38, 44, 45–6, 71, 77–8

non-REM parasomnias 72, 77–8

REM parasomnias 72, 78

parents

perceptions about PNES in children 187–9

Parkinson's disease 111, 114, 115

paroxysmal dyskinesias 69

in children 98–9

paroxysmal dystonias 46

paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis 69

paroxysmal events in children 93–105

acute life-threatening event (ALTE) 94–7

adolescents 103–5

alternating hemiplegia of childhood 101

apnea (neonatal and infantile) 94–7

approaches to classification 93–4

benign myoclonus of infancy 99–100

benign neonatal sleep myoclonus 97

benign nonepileptic infantile spasms 99–100

benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy 99

benign paroxysmal vertigo 98

breath-holding spells 98

cataplexy 105

conversion disorder 105

daydreaming 101

dyskinesias 101–2

episodic ataxia 102

episodic dyscontrol 102

hereditary hyperekplexia 97

hyperekplexia 97

hyperkinetic movement disorders 101–2

hyperventilation 101

hypnagogic hallucinations 105

infancy (2 months to 2 years) 98–101

infantile masturbation 100

intermittent explosive disorder 102

jitteriness (infants) 97

migraine 103–4

Munchausen by proxy syndrome 102–3

narcolepsy 105

neonatal period (birth to 8 weeks) 94–7

nightmares 103

opsoclonus 100

paroxysmal dyskinesia 98–9

paroxysmal tonic upward gaze 97

pavor nocturnus (night terrors) 103

PNES in children and adolescents 104

psychiatric disorders 104–5

rage attacks 102

rhythmic movement disorder of sleep 100–1

rumination 99

Sandifer syndrome 99

shuddering attacks in infants 98

sleep attacks 105

sleep paralysis 105

somnambulism (sleepwalking) 103

spasmus nutans 100

staring spells 101

startle response (neonates) 97

stereotypies 100

stool withholding activity 101

syncope in children and adolescents 104

tics 102

paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesias

in children 102

paroxysmal kinesiogenic dyskinesia 69

paroxysmal kinesiogenic dyskinesia

in children 102

paroxysmal limb movements of sleep 46


paroxysmal movement disorders

differential diagnosis 46

paroxysmal nonkinesiogenic dyskinesia

in children 102

paroxysmal tonic upward gaze (infants) 97

pavor nocturnus 103

pediatric PNES (PPNES)

See children with PNES

peer relationship problems

children with PNES 180

perceptions about PNES in children and adolescents 187–9

periodic limb movement disorder 78

periodic limb movements in sleep 72

Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) 139

personality disorders

comorbidity with PNES 12, 227–31

personality profiles of PNES patients 7

personality testing and PNES 138–40

phantom limb pain 71

pharmacological treatments for PNES

AED use in patients with mixed ES/PNES 309

AED use in PNES 308–9

analgesics 307, 312

antidepressants 307

anxiolytics 307

assessment and treatment recommendations 312–13

barbiturates 310

benzodiazepines 310

bromides 310

dopamine hypothesis 312

historical approaches 310

NMDA antagonists 312

propranolol 307, 312

role in combination with other therapies 307–8

serotonin hypothesis 311

sodium amytal 310

SSRIs 311–12

treatment strategies 308

University of Memphis approach 312

pheochromocytoma 72

physical abuse

association with PNES 213–14

physiological nonepileptic seizures

definition 3

physiological nonepileptic events 45–6

PNES

See psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

Portland Digit Recognition Test 137

positron emission tomography (PET)

physiology of hypnosis and hysteria 83

posttraumatic hysteria 19

use of hypnotism 20

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 82, 111, 134

association with PNES 215

comorbidity with PNES 11

indirect association with PNES 215–17

link with PNES 12

role in PNES etiology 217–19

postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) 64–5

postural syncope 64

presyncope 64

prevalence of PNES 4–5

privacy

legal implications of PNES 158–9

Problem Centered Systems Therapy of the Family (PCSTF) 319–20

progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and tetanus 70

prolactin levels

patients with comorbid ES and PNES 58

postictal testing 44–5

prolonged confusional or fugue states 72–3

propranolol 307, 312

propriospinal myoclonus 77

provocative techniques

diagnosis of PNES 42

pseudoepileptic seizures 3

pseudoparasomnias 79

pseudoseizures 3

“pseudosleep”

clinical features of PNES during 79

pseudostatus and status epilepticus 56

psychiatric assessment of PNES patients 310

psychiatric disorders

in children and adolescents 104–5

psychiatric disorders in PNES

borderline personality disorder 228–31

comorbid anxiety disorders 226–7

comorbid mood disorders 226–7

comorbid personality disorders 227–31

heterogeneity and complexity 232

impact on outcome after PNES diagnosis 231–2

primary psychiatric disorders 225

psychiatric features of pediatric PNES

clinical vignettes 171–4

comorbid psychiatric diagnoses 165–6

diagnosis 166–9

diagnostic feedback to parents and child 169–71

models of pediatric PNES 163–5

primary diagnosis of pediatric PNES 165

risk factors 163

treatment goals 174–6

psychiatric taxonomies

classification of PNES 9–13

psychiatrist

role in treatment of PNES 260, 263

psychic experiences

causes 71

psychoanalysis 21, 22

psychodynamic approach to PNES treatment 266–9

psychogenic movement disorders 44

psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES)

alternative terminology 3

definitions 3

differentiation from ES 3

psychogenic seizures 3

psychological mechanism of PNES 8

psychological support

See care of patients with PNES

psychoneurosis 22

psychosomatic/psychophysiological models for PNES treatment 273

PTSD

See posttraumatic stress disorder


Puerto Rican culture and PNES 124–6

childhood trauma 124–5

clinical phenomenology of ataque de nervios 124

comorbidity 125–6

cultural predisposition to dissociation 125

epidemiology of ataque de nervios 124

gender roles 125

precipitating factors for ataque de nervios 125

psychopathogenesis 124–5

relationship between ataque and dissociation 125

variability of clinical course 125–6

quality of life

See Health Related Quality of Life

Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 (QOLIE-89) 143, 150

rage attacks 204

in children 102

reflex epilepsies 71

reflex hypotension 64

reflex startle epilepsy 70

reflex syncope 64

rehabilitation therapist

role in treatment of PNES 264

REM parasomnias 72, 78

REM sleep behavior disorder 45, 46, 72, 78, 115

REM sleep-associated parasomnias

in the elderly 111

repression 267

repression in PNES patients

brain structures involved 145–6

research on PNES

funding support 32–4

restless legs syndrome 46, 71

in the elderly 115

Rett's syndrome 100

Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test 145

rhythmic movement disorder of sleep in children 100–1

rhythmic movement disorders 46, 71, 79

rhythmie du sommeil 100

right ventricular dysplasia 64, 65

Riley Day syndrome 98

Romano-Ward syndrome 65

rumination in children 99

saline injection (IV)

use in PNES diagnosis 42

Sandifer syndrome 99

scalp EEG 44

seizure labels 87–8

semiological classification of nonepileptic seizures 202

semiology of PNES

clinical types 79

sensory starts 77

sertraline 311

sexual abuse

association with PNES 213–14

children with PNES 179

shell shock 23

Shorter, Edward 24

Showalter, Elaine 24

shuddering attacks

in infants 98

in young children 46

situational syncope 64

sleep

occurrence of PNES events 77

sleep apnea 72

in the elderly 115

sleep arousal disorders 72

sleep attacks 105

sleep disorders 3, 45–6

episodic phenomena in sleep 71–2

in elderly people 115

major categories 77

See also narcolepsy, parasomnias

sleep events

differential diagnosis 80

nocturnal epileptic seizures 79–80

sleep paralysis 72, 77, 105

sleep-related breathing disorders 77

sleep-related movement disorders 77, 78–9

sleep terrors 78

sleep transition parasomnias 77

sleepwalking 45, 72, 78

in children 103

social worker

role in care of patients with PNES 256–7

role in treatment of PNES 264

socio-historical studies of hysteria 24

somatization

role in PNES 10–11

somatization disorder 24, 27

somatoform disorders

comorbidity with PNES 11

presence of medically unexplained symptoms 27

somatoform pain disorder 216

somnambulism 45, 72, 78

in children 103

somniloquy 45

spasmus nutans in children 100

St Vitus’ dance 17

Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C 83

staring spells in children 101

startle epilepsy 69, 70

startle syndromes 69–70

stereotypies in children 100

stiff-person syndrome 70

stool withholding activity in children 101

stress

as trigger for seizures 23–4

stress model for PNES treatment 270–3

stress seizures 3

stressors

link with PNES in children 179–80

stroke 43, 111

in children 105

subconscious ideas

role in hysteria 21

subgroups in PNES 275–6


sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) 66

suggestibility and hysteria 21

sulpiride 312

supraventricular tachycardia 64, 65

swallowing syncope 65

Sydenham, Thomas 18

syncope 38, 44, 45, 62–7

cardiogenic 64, 65–6

causes 64–6

definition 63–4

diagnosis 66–7

differential diagnosis 45

differentiation from PNES 9

in children and adolescents 104

in the elderly 111, 114

incidence 64

presence of myoclonic jerks 66

prevalence 64

prognosis and treatment 67

recurrence 64

structural heart disease 65–6

transient loss of awareness 62–3

vascular causes 64–5

vasovagal syncope 64

tachyarrhythmias 65

Tarantism 17

terminology relating to nonepileptic seizures 199–200

Test of Memory Malingering 137

tetralogy of Fallot 104

TIAs

See transient ischemic attacks

tics 69

in children 102

“torsade de pointes” 65

torticollis in children 99

Tourette, Gilles de la 82

Tourette's syndrome 102

transient epileptic amnesia 73

transient focal hypermotor episodes 68–70

transient focal sensory attacks 70–1

transient global amnesia 46, 72–3

in adolescents 105

transient global cerebral hypoperfusion

See syncope

transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) 46, 70

differentiation from PNES 9

in children 105

in the elderly 111, 114

transient ischemic events 73

differentiation from PNES 9

transient loss of awareness 62–3

See also syncope

transient retrograde amnesia 62

trans-theoretical model of intentional human behavior change 193

trauma

and dissociation 82–3

causal role in hysteria 22

effects on the central nervous system 82

indirect association with PNES 215–17

role in PNES etiology 217–19

trauma/abuse

association with PNES 213–15

treatment of PNES

clinical psychologist's role 263–4

first goal of treatment 260–1

historical approaches 237–43

issues relating to who should treat 260

need for a multidisciplinary approach 264

neurologist's role 260, 261–3

neuropsychologist's role 263–4

psychiatrist's role 260

psychiatrist's role 263

rehabilitation therapist's role 264

role of mental health professionals 260, 263–4

social worker's role 264

See underSee also specific therapies

treatment plans

classical conditioning model 269–70

family systems model 269

individually adapted strategies 277

learning theory models 269–70

operant conditioning model 270

“organic” psychosyndrome model 273–4

psychodynamic approach 266–9

psychosomatic/psychophysiological models 273

stress model 270–3

subgroups in PNES 275–6

towards a unified model for PNES 274–5

tremor 68

See undersee also shuddering attacks in young children

tremors

in children 102

Trousseau's sign 101

Turkish culture and PNES 122–4

alexithymia 123

childhood trauma and dissociation 122–3

clinical phenomenology 122

comorbidity 123–4

complaisant overadjustment 122

difficulty in self-perception and self-expression 123

disadvantageous effects of exaggerated gender roles 123

epidemiology 122

family dynamics 122

insecure attachment 122–3

precipitating factors 123

psychopathogenesis 122–3

psychosocial stress factors 123

special role in the family 122

variability in clinical course 123–4

unconscious conflicts

role in hysteria 22

undifferentiated somatoform disorder 27

vascular causes of syncope 64–5

vasodepressor hypotension 64

vasovagal hypotension 64

ventricular fibrillation 64

ventricular tachycardia 64, 65

vertebrobasilar ischemia 68

vertigo 70–1

video-EEG (VEEG) monitoring

analysis of ictal semiology 40–2

comorbid ES and PNES 57–8

diagnosis of epilepsy 23

diagnosis of PNES 3–4

diagnostic use in the elderly 110, 112, 116

limitations and pitfalls 43–4

role in diagnosis of PNES 38, 39–42

role in PNES diagnosis 8–9

short-term outpatient VEEG with activation 42

use of hypnosis to induce PNES 83–4

use of provocative techniques 42

vocal outbursts 71


wandering womb concept of hysteria 17, 190

war-related neuroses 23–4

war-related trauma 83

Whytt, Robert 18

Willis, Thomas 18

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome 65

women and PNES

epidemiology 132–3

gender difference in medical disorders 131

gender differences in PNES 131

gender-related difference in symptomatology 134

gender-related differences in prognosis 134

historical views of women and hysteria 131–2

nature of the relationship 134

role of age 132–3

sexual trauma and PNES 133–4

subtypes of PNES and gender 133

Word Memory Test (WMT) 137




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